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How to contribute to this book

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because the Work comes WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY -- see Section 7 ("NO
WARRANTY") below.

If you wish to modify this book in any way, you must document the nature of those modifications in the "Credits" section along with your name, and ideally, information concerning how you may be contacted. Again, the Design Science License:

Permission is granted to modify or sample from a copy of the Work,
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under the terms described in the section for distribution above,
provided that the following terms are met:

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Given the complexities and security issues surrounding the maintenance of files comprising this book, it is recommended that you submit any revisions or expansions to the original author (Tony R. Kuphaldt). You are, of course, welcome to modify this book directly by editing your own personal copy, but we would all stand to benefit from your contributions if your ideas were incorporated into the online “master copy” where all the world can see it.


All entries arranged in alphabetical order of surname. Major contributions are listed by individual name with some detail on the nature of the contribution(s), date, contact info, etc. Minor contributions (typo corrections, etc.) are listed by name only for reasons of brevity. Please understand that when I classify a contribution as “minor”, it is in no way inferior to the effort or value of a “major” contribution, just smaller in the sense of less text changed. Any and all contributions are gratefully accepted. I am indebted to all those who have given freely of their own knowledge, time, and resources to make this a better book!

Tony R. Kuphaldt

  • Date(s) of contribution(s): 1996 to present
  • Nature of contribution: Original author.
  • Contact at: liec0@lycos.com

Dennis Crunkilton

  • Date(s) of contribution(s): July 2004 to present
  • Nature of contribution: Mini table of contents, all chapters except appendicies; html, latex, ps, pdf; See Devel/tutorial.html; 01/2006.
  • Nature of contribution: Completed Ch4 Bipolar junction transistors, CH7 Thyristors; Ch9 Practical anlog ckts, a few additions; Ch8 Opamps, minor; 04/2009
  • Contact at: dcrunkilton(at)att(dot)net

Bill Marsden

  • Date(s) of contribution(s): May 2003 - present
  • Nature of contribution: Update to LED subsection, Diodes Ch 3 , Nov 2003.
  • Nature of contribution: Original author: “ElectroStatic Discharge” Section, Chapter 9, May 2008.
  • Nature of contribution: Chapter 3, LED's update, photodiode update, Feburary 2009.
  • Nature of contribution: Chapter 11, Section author: "Pulse Width Modulation", Feburary 2010.
  • Contact at: bill_marsden2(at)hotmail(dot)com

John Anhalt

  • Date(s) of contribution(s): June 2011
  • Nature of contribution: Updated Si SP3 electron hybridization, Ch 2
  • Contact at: jpa@anhalt.org

Your name here

  • Date(s) of contribution(s): Month and year of contribution
  • Nature of contribution: Insert text here, describing how you contributed to the book.
  • Contact at: my_email@provider.net

Typo corrections and other “minor” contributions

  • line-allaboutcircuits.com (June 2005) Typographical error correction in Volumes 1,2,3,5, various chapters ,(:s/visa-versa/vice versa/).
  • Colin Creitz (May 2007) Chapters: several, s/it's/its.
  • Dennis Crunkilton (October 2005) Typographical capitlization correction to sectiontitles, chapter 9.
  • Jeff DeFreitas (March 2006)Improve appearance: replace “/” and “/” Chapters: A1, A2.
  • Paul Stokes, Program Chair, Computer and Electronics Engineering Technology, ITT Technical Institute, Houston, Tx (October 2004) Change (10012 = -810 + 710 = -110) to (10012 = -810 + 110 = -110), CH2, Binary Arithmetic
  • Paul Stokes, Program Chair Computer and Electronics Engineering Technology, ITT Technical Institute, Houston, Tx (October 2004) Near "Fold up the corners" change Out=B'C' to Out=B'D', 14118.eps same change, Karnaugh Mapping
  • The students of Bellingham Technical College's Instrumentation program, .
  • Roger Hollingsworth (May 2003) Suggested a way to make the PLC motor control system fail-safe.
  • Jan-Willem Rensman (May 2002) Suggested the inclusion of Schmitt triggers and gate hysteresis to the "Logic Gates" chapter.
  • Don Stalkowski (June 2002) Technical help with PostScript-to-PDF file format conversion.
  • Joseph Teichman (June 2002) Suggestion and technical help regarding use of PNG images instead of JPEG.
  • Unregistered@allaboutcircuits.com (November 2007) “Boolean algebra”, images 14019.pes 14021.eps output of gates incorrect s/0/A s/1/A .
  • Dan Simon (February 2008) “Numeration Systems”, After BINARY TO OCTAL CONVERSION, position of decimal point ---.
  • Timothy Kingman (March 2008) Changed default roman font to newcent.
  • Imranullah Syed (March 2008) Suggested centering of uncaptioned schematics.
  • Chris01720@allaboutcircuits.com (March 2008) Ch 15, Inaccuracy involving CD-ROM production.
  • studiot@allaboutcircuits.com (March 2008) Ch 15, s/disk/disc/ in CDROM .
  • Keith@allaboutcircuits.com (April 2008) Ch 12, s/laralel-out/parallel-out/ .
  • Ken Braswell (May 2008) Ch 3, s/drips/drops/.
  • Guest@allaboutcircuits.com (Oct 2008) Ch 2, s/are in close/are close/.
  • Radoslav@allaboutcircuits.com (Oct 2008) Ch 8, s/that 1 mA of/that 6 mA/.
  • Scanman@allaboutcircuits.com (Dec 2008) Ch 2, s/shells are hold/shells hold/.
  • dgeorge@allaboutcircuits.com (Dec 2008) Ch 7, image 03320.png, swapped anode and anode gate. left diagram.
  • Unregistered Guest@allaboutcircuits.com (Feb 2009) Ch 2 s/than FET's/than JFET's.
  • Unregistered Guest@allaboutcircuits.com (March 2009) Ch 8, 13061.png, change formula for inverting gain to include "-" .
  • dezurtrat@allaboutcircuits.com (March 2009) Ch 3, 03443.png, s/p-p/peak.
  • Bill Marsden@allaboutcircuits.com (April 2009) Ch 3, s/I would/It would/
  • Peter O@allaboutcircuits.com (April 2009) Ch 1, closing parenthesis, above replaced with reference to figure.
  • Nanophotonics@allaboutcircuits.com (April 2009) Ch 9, image 53009.jpg s/courtisy/courtesy.
  • Bill Marsden@allaboutcircuits.com (April 2009) Ch 8, images 2001.png, 2002.png appearance.
  • D Crunkilton (April 2009) Ch 4, images 23006.png, 23007.png updated.
  • Unregistered Guest@allaboutcircuits.com (June 2009) Ch 7, s/SCR schematic symbol/TRIAC schematic symbol .
  • Peter O'Dette (June 2009) Ch 1, s/is 1 watts/is 1 Watt , s/10 watt/10 Watts , s/ watt/ Watt .
  • Unregistered Guest@allaboutcircuits.com (June 2009) Ch 3, s/being/begin , near "voltage at which they" . s/is/in near "The diodes must be".
  • regrehan@allaboutcircuits.com (June 2009) Ch 4, s/r1 1 2 1/r1 1 2 1k in common-emitter amplifier SPICE list.
  • Unregistered Guest@allaboutcircuits.com (July 2009) Ch 3, s/Note polarity change on coil changed/Note polarity change on coil.
  • Unregistered Guest@allaboutcircuits.com (August 2009) Ch 4, Swap PNP & NPN at (b) & (c), caption of 03075.png .
  • Unregistered Guest@allaboutcircuits.com (August 2009) equation typos 03077.png 03479.png .
  • Peter O'Dette@allaboutcircuits.com (August 2009) Ch 2, Numerous changes, and 03409.png .
  • Bill Marsden@allaboutcircuits.com (November 2009) Ch 4, Beta formula, "Transistor atings and Packages".
  • Unregistered Guest@allaboutcircuits.com (November 2009) Ch 3, Image 03288.eps changed polarized capacitor to non-polarized.
  • Unregistered Guest@allaboutcircuits.com (November 2009) Ch 4 s/hasre/share/ s/common=emitter/common-emitter/ .
  • Uisge@allaboutcircuits.com (November 2009) Ch 3, s/once every half-cycle/one half of every full cycle/ , s/much/half/ .
  • Unregistered Guest@allaboutcircuits.com (November 2009) Ch 4 s/To maintaining/To maintain .
  • Unregistered Guest@allaboutcircuits.com (November 2009) Ch 3 s/[model]/[modelname]/ .
  • gareththegeek@allaboutcircuits.com (November 2009) Ch 2 numerous typos, omissions .
  • Dcrunkilton@allaboutcircuits.com (November 2009) Ch 2 minor chages to text and image 03392.eps .
  • waynerr@allaboutcircuits.com (December 2009) Ch 4 equations 4 and 7 of image 03488.eps .
  • jkenny@allaboutcircuits.com (January 2010) Ch 7 s/will will/will/ .
  • BHijazi@allaboutcircuits.com (February 2010) Ch 1, Clarification of text between images 03378.png and 03379.png .
  • SgtWookiei@allaboutcircuits.com (March 2010) Ch 4, image 03375.png, flipped pnp and battery .
  • Bill_Marsden@allaboutcircuits.com (March 2010) Ch 9, Changes to ESD section.
  • SgtWookiei@allaboutcircuits.com (April 2010) Ch 4, image 03078.png, added resistors.
  • silv3rmOOn@allaboutcircuits.com (April 2010) Ch 4, typo in SPICE listing near image 20004.png.
  • optomist1@allaboutcircuits.com (July 2010) Ch 2, typo s/campared/compared/.
  • Bill_Marsden@allaboutcircuits.com (July 2010) Ch 11, change [I] to italic tags in dcdrive.sml .
  • Unregistered guest @allaboutcircuits.com (August 2010) Ch 2, s/The bopolar transistor/The bipolar junction transistor/ .
  • Unregistered guest @allaboutcircuits.com (August 2010) Ch 4,
  • D Crunkilton (Sept 2010) Ch 2 s/minuscule/minuscule; Ch 3 ,4 ,5, 7, s/useable/usable.
  • beenthere@allaboutcircuits.com (Oct 2010) Ch 3, AC line powered LED material removed.
  • mulebones@allaboutcircuits.com (Feb 2011) Ch 3, s/5 Vptp/10 Vptp/
  • Skfir@allaboutcircuits.com (Feb 2011) Ch 1, s/ ource/source/
  • Skfir@allaboutcircuits.com (Feb 2011) Ch 2, 4, A3 s/the the/the/
  • Skfir@allaboutcircuits.com (Feb 2011) Ch 2, s/insulator insulator/insulator/
  • Skfir@allaboutcircuits.com (Feb 2011) Ch 3, s/a approximately/at approximately/ , s/frequency my/frequency may/ , s/application a/appliation is as/ , s/been produce/been produced/; Ch4 s/approximage/approximate/ s/resistor is a short/capacitor is a short/ ; s/Iis it/Is it/ s/The the/The/ s/the these/these/, s/distortion distortion/distortion/
  • D. Crunkilton (June 2011) hi.latex, header file; updated link to openbookproject.net .
  • SamAtOz@allaboutcircuits.com (May 2012) Ch 2 s/occurr/occur s/repells/repels/ , s/is increases/increases , at (c) changed to full reference, .
  • john207@allaboutcircuits.com (May 2012) Ch 4, various
  • Bill_Marsden@allaboutcircuits.com (May 2012) Ch 4, Clarification of text near: Bipolar transistors are contructed. . ..
  • kintzlr@allaboutcircuits.com (January 2013) Ch 4,image 03495.eps corrected. Added Ohm symbol to 0.26, above 2600 Ohm.
  • sby64@allaboutcircuits.com (January 2013) Ch 4, caption image 03495.png s/resistance Vth/resistance Rth.
  • keithostertag@allaboutcircuits.com (January 2013) Ch 4, caption image 03495.png s/resistance Vth/resistance Rth.
  • Eugene Smirnoff (January 2013) Ch 2, near "A SQUID'" s/is an/is a/ s/Superconduction/Superconducting.
  • mrchen@allaboutcircuits.com (February 2014) Ch 3, s/inversely proportional/iverted/ in Common Emitter section .
  • slidercrank@allaboutcircuits.com (February 2014) Ch 1,symbol for neper s/n/Np/. Ch 2, s/Dimitri/Dmitri/, s/always"risky"/always "risky"/
  • triffid_hunter@allaboutcircuits.com (February 2014) Ch 3, s/common-base/common-emitter , caption and image 03502.eps in Cascode section .
  • mnada@allaboutcircuits.com (February 2014) Ch 4, s/RB/RE in table near image 03488.png and in image 03488.png
  • adam555@allaboutcircuits.com (February 2014) Ch 4, change b to Beta in image 03488.png; above 13074.png s/base resistor/emitter resistor. After internal resistance: s/RE/REE. s+(Beta)REE/IE+(Beta)REE+.
  • LvW@allaboutcircuits.com (February 2014) Ch 4, change 22 instance of REE to ree in text; same for images: 03489.eps 03494.eps 03495.eps 03497.eps 13062.eps
  • georacer@allaboutcircuits.com (February 2014) Ch 4, insert bigspcace tag above Bypass Capacitor for R.
  • peek65408@allaboutcircuits.com (February 2014) Ch 4, s/Small emitter base current controls large collector emitter current flowing against emitter arrow/Small Base-Emitter current controls large Collector-Emitter current flowing against emitter arrow/. image:13048.eps changed Euler's constant to Euler's Number.
  • tshuck@allaboutcircuits.com (February 2014) Ch 3, insert missing image 03300.png into diode.sml.
  • Roman Kaluzniacki (October 2014) Ch 2, s/principle/principal with respect to "principal quantum number".
  • va-sawyer (August 2015) Ch 4, s/0.26mV/26m/ s/Re'/rEE/.

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